As the future energy, hydrogen is attractive because it produces no carbon dioxide when it burns. To transport and storage hydrogen, liquefying hydrogen is effective because of its compactness and lightness in weight in comparison with other transportation technology. The development of loading arms for liquefied hydrogen is necessary to achieve marine transportation by liquefied hydrogen careers. We made a lot of study about the important equipment such as emergency release systems and swivel joints. We produced a prototype of them, and conducted some tests with actual liquefied hydrogen referring to ISO 16904 for LNG loading arm. Finally, we manufactured the overall loading arm with the developed equipment, and performed operation tests in the cryogenic condition. In addition, we assessed the potential risks of loading and unloading liquefied hydrogen. Now, we are suggesting a new ISO proposal for the loading arm for liquefied hydrogen based on ISO 16904 and the knowledge mainly about safety obtained from our development.
The hydrogen energy is the important item for the reduction of global warming gas emission in rder to accomplish the aggressive level target of Japan. At Port-Island, Kobe, Hyogo, the world first demonstration project of hydrogen co-generation system was performed by Obayashi Corporation and Kawasaki Heavy Industry Corporation. This project has started on 2015, designed and constructed from 2016 to 2017 and demonstrated on 2018. The hydrogen fuel was supplied as a liquefied hydrogen and stored in the insulated tank reducing the evaporation loss. The flexible fuel gas turbine generator was developed using cutting edge multi-fuel burner, which can use the flexible ratio of the hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel. The heat and electricity from this project was supplied to the surrounding public facilities with control and management by the integrated energy management system for the optimized operation from the point of view of economy and environmental contribution. Additionally, the biaxial steam supply piping network was developed and applied for the heating system. This demonstration project is supported by the national authority, New Energy Development Organization and cooperated with Kobe city, Kansai Electric Power Company, Iwatani Corporation, Kanden Energy Solution Company and Osaka University.
Ammonia is not only a hydrogen energy carrier but also a carbon-free fuel. It has great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission from energy conversion systems when it is used as a fuel for direct combustion. However, some challenges related to combustion characteristics of ammonia exist for the utilization in combustion apparatus such as gas turbine, automobile engine, marine engine, industrial furnaces, etc. In this article, fundamental characteristics of ammonia combustion and the mechanism of those are explained based on combustion science, and then some methods to overcome the challenges are introduced.
Fuel cell systems supplied with ammonia have been developed as the SIP Project in Japan. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) from single cells to stacked-level cells coupled with an ammonia cracking catalytic reactions have been fabricated to evaluate their fuel flexibility, generation efficiency, components, and degradation factors. Active ammonia cracking and auto-thermal cracking catalysts have been developed using base metal components. Starting with research on cell components and single cells, stack scale examinations have been extended up to 1-kW-class cells. Generation testing of hot modules and packaged SOFC systems has been performed for verification testing. Anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) stacks were operated by supplying fuel after ammonia cracking.
Test results of the ammonia mixed Combustion at Mizushima Power Station Unit No.2 and related patent applications. At the Mizushima Power Station Unit No.2 (Coal-fired, Location: Kurashiki, Okayama Prefecture, rated output: 156,000 kW), the Chugoku Electric Power Company conducted the ammonia mixed-combustion test from July 3 to 9 in order to reduce the environmental burden of coal-fired power stations.
Norwegian research institutes and organizations carry out a wide variety of hydrogen and fuel cell related projects collaborating with other research institutes not only in Norway but also globally. The aims of these projects are CO2 reduction in Norway and to gain industrial competitiveness of low carbon solutions including hydrogen. These projects cover hydrogen production with CO2 capture and storage, large scale hydrogen transport and utilization in transport and industrial sectors.