In shipping, exhaust gas (NOx,SOx,PM) and greenhouse gas (CO2) regulations have been established on the basis of international treaties. These regulations have been strengthened step by step. For this reason, many companies are trying a new technology development and fuel conversion for problem problem-solving. Hydrogen fuel cell is a zero emission power generation system and is expected as a new method of solving problems for exhaust gas regulation. However, the hydrogen fuel cell ship existing in Japan is not a practical level. Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology has started the research and the development of battery-electric boats since 2009. We have built three battery-electric experimental boats named “Raicho Ⅰ”, “Raicho S” and “Raicho N”. Current main researches are remote control system , unmanned operation system and a new power generation system by the hydrogen fuel cell.
The fuel cell is being developed as the future promising ecological energy sources for the ground transportation applications and the terrestrial power plan t applications. The fuel cell technology has the very attractive features including the higher efficiency capability and the potential higher cost effectiveness compared with the conventional energy sources. The Boeing, Airbus and JAXA have studied the aviation fuel cell applications which are introduced here. PEFC and SOFC technologies are estimated to be applied to the electric power system of the future airplanes.
H3 rocket is the Japanese next flagship launch vehicle for large satellites succeeding the currently operated H2A and H2B. It is developed with the first flight scheduled in fiscal year 2020 in order to guarantee the autonomy of our nation in access-to-space and to realize its competitiveness in the 2020s. Since hydrogen is known as the propellant of excellent performance for the space launch vehicle, Japanese rockets have been utilizing liquid hydrogen for the fuel of first stage and the second stage. Making the most of this core competence, H3 is the largest hydrogen-oxygen rocket optimised for the future global launch market. Thus space industry will stay as the large market of liquid hydrogen in Japan and can also contribute to the realization of the hydrogen society as the technology innovator.
Originally, there are few energy consumptions compared with other transportation system on a railway vehicle. On the other hand, we have contemplated future’s hydrogen energy society and have developed the train which makes hydrogen an energy source. There is non-electrification section in Japan about 40 %. Energy conservation is achieved to change a diesel engine car for a hydrogen train. When an exhaust gas from a vehicle disappears, it’s clean and becomes maintenance-free. In this paper, we speculate on an environmental load, a running test result and a hydrogen cylinder installed in a hydrogen train.
TOYOTA INDUSTRIES CORPORATION is working to develop an optimal fuel-cell system for forklifts to make contribution to realize a low-carbon society in the field of logistics. A lot of forklifts are in long-time operation at various sites, e.g. mainly at factories, wholesale markets, airports, etc. Promotion of introducing fuel-cell forklifts is expected to reduce downtime, improve work environment and create further demand of hydrogen.
We will report our latest status of development activities and field tests.
Hydrogen has been collecting the attentions as a fuel without CO2 emission and the energy career for long time. Co-generation can be one of the energy systems using hydrogen. AIST has been studying several engine systems for hydrogen and hydrogen careers for over 20 years. Almost engine systems of them are adaptable for co-generation systems. This paper introduces the gas diesel engine for hydrogen, the engine system for hydrogen career (MCH) and the gas-turbine for NH3.
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD. (KHI) has research and development projects for future hydrogen society; production of hydrogen gas, refinement and liquefaction for transportation and storage, and utilization with gas turbine / gas engine for electricity supply. In the developments of hydrogen gas turbine, the key technology is stable and “Low NOx” hydrogen combustion. This paper describes three types of the Low NOx hydrogen combustion technology for hydrogen gas turbine. At first, challenges for hydrogen combustion described. In the next chapter, a “Dry type Low NOx” combustion technology for mixture fuel of hydrogen and natural gas which uses supplemental burner, a “Wet type Low NOx” pure hydrogen combustion technology which uses water or steam and a “Dry type Low NOx” pure hydrogen combustion technology are described each.
Tokyo Metropolitan Government regards hydrogen energy as an effective energy in the point of view of reducing environmental impacts, diversifying energy sources, developing industry and responding emergency, so we aim to establish hydrogen-based society.
For promoting hydrogen energy, it is very important to adopt fuel cells vehicles (FCVs) and establish hydrogen stations (HRSs).
Therefore we set targets for establishing HRSs and adopting FCVs: we would like to establish 35 stations by 2020, 80 stations by 2025 and 150 stations by 2030 and adopt 6,000 cars by 2020, 0.1 million cars by 2025 and 0.2 million cars by 2030.
To achieve these targets, we established subsidies for establishing and operating HRSs and purchasing FCVs to support creating initial demands.
In addition, it is also important to enhance social acceptability from general public who use hydrogen energy and is going to establish Tokyo Hydrogen Museum in the summer of 2016 in Koto-ku, Tokyo.