The current study investigated the functional differences of “own name” depending on the level of self-esteem in the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) by observing the results of one-sample t-tests and ANOVAs of two higher and lower self-esteem groups. According to the suggestion, the lower the self-esteem, the weaker the trial-type 1 IRAP effect measured by the name IRAP by Zhang and Tani (2022). We assumed that the singletrial-type-dominance effect (STTDE) appears only in the group with high self-esteem and is not observed in the group with low self-esteem for IRAP. Participants were thirty-one native Japanese speakers, and for the IRAP, two labels (own name or others) and two targets (positive or negative words) were used. Each participant completed the Japanese version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES-J) and IRAP. We divided the participants into higher and lower self-esteem groups based on the results of the RSES-J.Results found a significant difference for the participant’s name-positive trial type (t = 6.14, df = 15, p < .01) for the higher self-esteem group. One-way repeated-measures ANOVAs yielded a significant main effect of trial-type on the IRAP for the higher selfesteem group (F (3, 15) = 10.35, p < .01, 𝜂𝜌2 = .41). Bonferroni post hoc tests indicated that the effects for the participant’s name-positive differed significantly from the three other trialtypes (p < .01); the remaining types did not differ significantly from each other (p > .05) for the higher self-esteem group. For the lower self-esteem group, ANOVAs confirmed no significant main effect (F (3, 14) = 1.30, p > .05). Bonferroni post hoc tests indicated that the effect for all trials did not differ significantly from each other (p > .05). The hypothesis was supported by the results that STTDE appears only in the group with high self-esteem and is not observed in the group with low self-esteem for IRAP. In the results of a differential arbitrarily applicable relational responding effects analysis of word functions, the function of “own name” differed between respondents with low versus high self-esteem. In conclusion, the study successfully identified the differences in that the higher the self-esteem the stronger was the appetitive evoking function, and the lower the self-esteem the stronger the aversive evoking function for “own name” in Name-IRAP.
The use of popular youth culture for the service of political propaganda is not new, but the risk of doing so is unpredictable. During the early COVID-19 pandemic, the virtual idol project launched by the Chinese Communist Party Youth League was immediately appropriated by feminist netizens and evolved into an online protest event that finally cut short the infamous attempt. This article focuses on how collective identity is constructed among the protest’s participants on social media. Previous literature pointed out the power of social media to connect dispersed individuals that promotes social movement participation without previous identity building, while others reaffirmed the continuous importance of the concept. Taking the “Jiang Shanjiao” incident that initially criticized menstruation shame in China as a case study, this article analyzes the slogans applied by participants, which contribute to building feminists’ cognition of the current problems, their moral sense, collective consciousness, and emotion, and highlights that the affordances of social media are instrumental in the process of constructing collective identity in online protests. The article also argues that even though collective identity created on social media protests emerges and disappears in a short period of time, the content of collective identity exemplified in the protest, including women’s experiences, shared emotions toward gender injustice, and solidarity, is steady and gives lasting vigor to feminist movements.
As the cross-border movement of labor accelerates the expansion of demographic and social diversity in Japan, its multicultural policies and programs related to immigration issues are prone to unceasing disputes. Situated within this site of contestation, the current work reframes and revisits the question about the government’s moves toward “multicultural coexistence” in relation to its underlying governance for including foreign migrants in society. Starting with a sketch of socio-demographic shifts driven by migration inflow, this article traces the evolution of Japan’s immigration-related policies from the 1980s to the 2010s. In particular, this article demonstrates how the development of immigration control policies regulating the expansion of de facto immigrant acceptance, together with the entrenchment of integration policies within the discourse of “multicultural coexistence,” constructs a governance framework that pivots around the politics of conditional inclusion by determining the scope and extent of inclusiveness it commits to. Based on the current
examination and existing critiques of Japan’s immigration and “multicultural coexistence” policy, this article further provides an understanding of its governance model as a neoliberal construction of immigration inclusion and attempts to throw light on its positive sides concerning the potential for advancing a more inclusive society.
The name Koryo Saram describes the Korean diaspora who are living in the former Soviet Union, and it is their self-identification. The Koryo Saram have been segregated into various subgroups, based on the policies and cultures of their countries of origin and residence from the Soviet era to the modern era. Simultaneously, the community has been forming transboundary networks expanding beyond their countries of origin and residence. This study focuses on the unprecedented increase in the number of Uzbekistani immigrants since 2007, when the Koryo Saram began returning to South Korea as compatriots. Exploring this case will make it possible to closely examine the dynamics of the minority communities in Central Asia. Moreover, by examining the factors accounting for diasporic return migration, empirical evidence concerning the globalized modern diaspora may be revealed. Therefore, this study investigates the return migration of diaspora minorities to their historical
homeland focused on a case study of Koryo Saram migration from Uzbekistan to South Korea and identifies the steps necessary for their integration into the host society and fulfilling a multicultural coexistence. Furthermore, it presents novel findings of diaspora research and captures the social dynamism of the minority communities in Central Asia.
Over the past two years, COVID-19 has spread rapidly throughout the world and made a significant impact on people’s lives. This study focused on the initial influence on families with young children in 2020. We investigated the family environment of Japanese and Chinese families with young children during COVID-19 via a questionnaire survey in 2020. We examined the relationship between the changes in family life environment and the QOL (Quality of Life) of mothers in the two societies. The findings suggest that both in Japan and
in China, families with young children met a lot of negative changes (e.g., unable to go outside or meet friends as usual, decrease in income) in the family environment during COVID-19, especially during the confinement period, which challenged the well-being of mothers. Meanwhile, they also perceived some positive changes, such as increased family time. In particular, the increased couple time or father-child time had a positive correlation
to a mother’s sense of life fulfillment, and consequently, it is the sense of life fulfillment that predicted mothers’ QOL. The findings of this study suggest that the difficulties/concerns due to the COVID-19 pandemic, including economic disadvantages were risk factors, whereas the life-fulfillment and good family relationships might play a positive role for mothers’QOL during such a challenging period. The differences in effect of these factors on mothers’well-being between the two societies were also discussed.
A new ministry for dealing with colonial affairs called the Takumu Ministry, or Takumushō was established in June 1929 by the Tanaka Giichi Cabinet, a political party cabinet in prewar Japan. This Ministry has received no small amount of attention in previous studies because it was envisioned not only as an attempt to consolidate colonial administration, but also as a threat to the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. However, while the process by which the original plan was undermined by the opposition of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been examined in detail, it is not clear why the Tanaka Cabinet sought to fundamentally reform not only the colonial administrative structure but also the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ structure. By also focusing on consuls stationed in neighboring colonial areas (South Seas and Manchuria) after World War I, this paper clarifies the problem pre-war Japan faced in its overseas administration. This was a contradiction with the international
cooperation principle faced by the Tanaka Cabinet, which sought to establish “Imperial Japan” in its fullest form under the development of party politics. In other words, reexamining the concept of establishing the Takumushō will clarify the contradictions between pre-war Japan’s colonial administrative policies and its international relations, and point out the limitations of the party cabinet system in resolving these issues.
Work engagement has become an essential factor for large enterprises to measure the fulfillment of human capital. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors leading to work engagement using the New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (Inoue et al., 2014) and employing a job demands-resources model to analyze a stress check survey in Japan. The hypotheses were H1) workload correlates with work engagement, H2) job resources correlate with work engagement, and H3) mental and physical reactions correlate with work engagement. The relationships were tested using enterprise data collected from 782 workers with 561 valid responses in twenty-three departments and branches of a financial institution in Japan. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with dependent variables of work engagement. Results of statistical significance appeared in the variables as follows: 1) workload: quality of workload, interpersonal relationships in the workplace, work-self balance, 2) job resources - task level: no use of employee’s skills, significance of work, 3) job resources - organization level: support from colleagues, 4) job resources - enterprise level: respect for individuals. 5) mental and physical reactions: vigor. Thus, all the hypotheses were supported. The first finding corroborated the previous studies while this study used enterprise data in Japan with statistical group analyses. The implications from a practical viewpoint were the proposal to select effective improvement actions for significant variables using the deliverables of industry-academia joint research between the University of Tokyo and Fujitsu Software Technologies Ltd.
This study aims to examine the impact of establishing common ground on the management of complaint sequences in Japanese and Egyptian Arabic languages. Through analyzing audio and video recordings of daily conversations from the Corpus of Everyday Japanese Conversation (CEJC) (Koiso et al., 2022) and the CALLHOME Arabic Corpus (MacWhinney, 2007), this study analyzes two direct complaint conversations for each
language. The analysis focuses on the sequences of interactional behaviors for both complaint interlocutors, using the AIE Model of Common Ground introduced in this research. In this model, three levels of ground are proposed to be established: Attention, Information and Evaluation. The results show that establishing common ground between interlocutors can have an impact on complaint sequences. In direct complaint interactions,
strong egocentric behavior was observed in both interlocutors, causing a failure to establish common ground and resulting in unresolved complaint sequences. The study also found differences in the ways that Japanese and Egyptian Arabic complaints end. Japanese complaints often end with the complainer uttering the last statement, followed by a long silence, while Egyptian complainers tend to change the topic or let the argument pass. The results of this study contribute to an understanding of the ways complaint interlocutors communicate and the reasons for choosing certain behaviors while interacting.
Many African countries, including Lesotho, have embarked on land reforms to shift away from the shortcomings that exist in the customary land tenure system. The land reforms ushered in legislation that also transformed the institutions in charge of land management matters, introducing formalized land registration. The role of the customary chiefs was diminished with the introduction of the Local Government Act, which gave more power to
the local or community councils to be in charge of land allocation matters at the community level. Moreover, in addressing the flaws in customary tenure, statutory laws were introduced in the rural areas upon the enactment of Land Act 2010. This research responds to the challenges of implementing land policy reforms in relation to the continuing influence of customary chiefs that persists regardless of the new regulations. The customary chiefs abuse their power by issuing backdated documentation to validate informal land transactions to suit the demands of both the former landowners and the buyers. The adaptation theory proposed here would be useful in determining the common ground for transitioning from the customary tenure system to the statutory tenure system, responding to questions concerning finding the way forward and overcoming the interference and persistence of customary power regarding land allocation.